Masjid Al-Haram (The Sacred Mosque) is located in Mecca, which is about 330m above sea level. The history of Mecca’s development is dated back to Abraham and his son, Ismail Peace Be Upon Them. In Mecca the Prophet (PBUH) was born. The first revelation was in Mecca, and in it Islam saw the light. It encompasses the Sacred Mosque; the first house that was placed for the people on Earth, as the Almighty Allah says: “Indeed, the first House [of worship] established for mankind was that at Makkah – blessed and a guidance for the worlds (96) In it are clear signs [such as] the standing place of Abraham. And whoever enters it shall be safe. And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House – for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves – then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds (97)“ In the book of Sahih Muslim, it was established that Abu Thar (A great companion of the Prophet (PBUH)) said: “I asked the Prophet (PBUH) about the first mosque that was placed on Earth, and he said: The Sacred Mosque. I said: Then what? He said: Al-Aqsa Mosque. I said: How long between them? He said: Forty years.” The Ka’ba, which is the direction of Muslims in the east and west of the world, is located approximately in the centre of the Sacred Mosque. It stands 15m high, and is shaped like a large cubic stone. It was built by Abraham, Peace Be Upon Him, by order from the Almighty Allah. Allah says: “For, when We assigned unto Abraham the site of this Temple,[We said unto him:] “Do not ascribe divinity to aught beside Me!” -and: “Purify My Temple for those who will walk around it,and those who will stand before it [in meditation], and those who will bow down and prostrate themselves [in prayer].”And Allah says: “And [mention] when Abraham was raising the foundations of the House and [with him] Ishmael, [saying], “Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed You are the Hearing, the Knowing.” Wahb bin Minbah was quoted as saying: “It was built by Abraham, Peace Be Upon Him, then the giants, then Jurhom bin Qusai bin Kilab. Yet, it is known for being built by Quraish.“Al-Zuhri was quoted as saying: “Once they built it and reached the corner position, Quraish disagreed about the corner, where all tribes wanted to lift it. As the disagreement peaked, they decided to take the ruling of the first person to pass from a certain direction. The Prophet (PBUH) was the first to pass. He was a young boy, wearing the scarf of a leopard. They asked him to rule on the corner. He placed it in a piece of cloth and ordered the master of each tribe to grab a side from the cloth. Then, he stood up and they lifted the corner to him, and he put in in place.” Muslim quoted Aisha as saying: “I asked the Prophet (PBUH) about whether the Hijr of Ismail (The Yard of Ismail) was within the house. He said: “Yes.” I said: “Why didn’t they make it within the house?” He said: “Your people are in short of support. I said: Why is its door high? He said: This was done by your people to let in whoever they wanted and prevent whoever they wouldn’t allow entry. As your people are new in Islam, I am concerned that their hearts would deny Islam. Otherwise, I would have considered inserting the Hijr of Ismail(The Yard of Ismail) in the house and stick its gate onto the ground.” Prior to Islam, the Ka’ba was exposed, during the year when the Prophet (PBUH) was born, to invasion by Abraha, the Abyssinian, when he built Al-Qullais; a church by which he wanted to distract the Arabs from pilgrimage. He took out with an army, accompanied be elephant. Once they arrived in Mecca, God sent birds in flocks, each carrying three stones, one stone in their beak, and two in their feet. The stones were the size of chickpeas and lentil. Once the stone hits, the man is dead. So, the army was eliminated and they were exterminated by order of the Almighty Allah. God mentioned this incident in the Holy Quran: “Have you not considered, [O Muhammad], how your Lord dealt with the companions of the elephant? Did He not make their plan into misguidance? And He sent against them birds in flocks, Striking them with stones of hard clay, And He made them like eaten straw.”There was no fence surrounding the mosque of the Ka’ba until it was needed. Yaqut Al-Hamawi, in “The Countries Lexicon”, said: “The fence surrounding the Ka’ba was first built by Omar bin Al-Khattab, God Bless Him. During the time of the Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr, it had no wall surrounding it, as people tightly surrounded the Ka’ba and their homes were close to it. Omar said: “The Ka’ba is the House of Allah, and each house must have a yard. You have tightened the space on the Ka’ba.” He bought those houses, demolished them, and increased the space of the Ka’ba accordingly. He also demolished the houses of people neighbouring the Masjid, who refused to sell. He determined the prices and they collected their money later. He ordered the construction of a lower than human height fence for the Masjid, where lantern were placed thereon. When Othman took over, he bought other more expensive houses. Of the religious historic remains are Maqam Ibrahim (The standing place of Abraham), i.e. the stone where Abraham, Peace Be Upon Him, while building the Ka’ba. Another site is the Well of Zamzam; a water spring brought out by the Almighty Allah for Hajar and her son, Ismail, Peace Be Upon Him, when he got thirsty. The black stone and the Place of Abraham are two iconic sapphires of Paradise. Al-Tirmithi and Ahmad quoted Abdulla bin Amro as saying: “I heard the Prophet (PBUH) saying that the corner and the standing place are two iconic sapphires of Paradise, of which Allah dimmed their light, and had Allah not dimmed their light, they would have lit between the east and west. Al-Safa and Al-Marwa mountains are adjacent to the Sacred Mosque.
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